Getting dramatically better results from your leadership development programming – Part II – A results-based definition of leadership

In my last blog, I described a worrisome trend in leadership development (LD) programming – confidence that these programs are providing the leadership training that organizations need is declining despite the fact that organizations have significantly increased funding for these programs in recent years. I argued that this troublesome trend was the result of LD programming that was too abstract, too complex, and too process focused and that leaders needed to have better “roadmaps” to help them make decisions about what strategies and leadership skills to apply to leadership problems.

A better definition of leadership would help

Warren Bennis  noted that in recent years, virtually all definitions of leadership focused on a familiar tripod – leaders, followers, and a common goal. In this model, leadership involved processes that leaders employed to induce followers to engage in achieving the common goal. While this model was a useful description of leadership in the past, it has serious limitations for developing leadership skills in contemporary organizational contexts because the model

  • is a bad fit for many current organizations that encourage greater collaboration between organizational levels and discourage rigid leadership hierarchies,
  • inevitably focuses on abstract processes such as influence and persuasion rather than results and outcomes,
  • and mediating behavioral processes (i.e. influencing, persuading, and inducing) have weak operational definitions.

In order to make leadership more concrete and teachable, LD programs usually build their curriculum around leadership competencies. While leadership competency models are certainly useful, they cannot be considered a substitute for a teachable model of leadership. I conceive of leadership competencies as the building blocks for effective leadership. However, a teachable model should also include strategies for how to apply the competencies in the various situations that leaders encounter.

An effective and teachable model of leadership, therefore, must have 3 components:

The purpose component has two facets: (1) the objective to be achieved (i.e., whether it is economic, political, and/or societal); and (2) the organizational level of the leader (i.e., supervisor, team leader, middle manager, or executive). For example, the strategies that are often effective for supervisors (action-focused and direct problem-solving) may be much less effective at the executive level. Establishing a clear purpose is important in determining the leadership strategies that will be most effective in achieving the leader’s objective.

Other factors involved in selecting a leadership strategy are the maturity of the team or organization[1]  and the leaders strengths and weaknesses as a leader.

I will discuss in greater detail leadership strategies that are available to leaders at all levels in a later blog.

In place of the tripod model, I suggest a definition that emphasizes results and outcomes as well as a willingness to engage or take responsibility for achieving objectives. Simply stated, leaders must first consider the context (i.e., purpose, team/organizational maturity, and personal leadership strengths and weaknesses ) in selecting a leadership strategy. The strategy selected, then, determines the leadership competencies that will be used to execute the leadership strategy.

Leadership is taking responsibility for getting things done through people.

Leaders, after all, are evaluated and compensated for achieving results. In addition, research[2] has indicated a strong positive relationship between the capabilities of leaders and the fate of organizations. By using a results-based definition of leadership, we ensure that we are focused on tangible outcomes rather than appearance (as is often the case in assessing potential for leadership).

A number of researchers at the Center for Creative Leadership[3] (CCL) have suggested the following causal path to describe how leaders can achieve their objectives. The front end of this path is the organization’s leadership culture: individual beliefs about leadership, collective leadership beliefs, and individual leadership practices. Depending upon the context, leaders take action to provide direction, create  alignment, and instill commitment. These actions, if successful, achieve the desired long-term outcomes. In organizational systems terms, leadership culture is Input; actions to achieve direction, alignment, and commitment are the Throughput; and the achievement of organizational goals is the Output.

My next blog will discuss leadership strategies that are commonly used by successful leaders to achieve the direction, alignment, and commitment that CCL research describes.

Skipton Leonard, PhD
Managing Director


[1] Hersey, P. & Blanchard, K.H. (1977). Management of organizational behavior: Utilizing human resources (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

[2] Kaiser, R.B., Hogan, R., & Craig, S.B. (2008). Leadership and fate of organizations. American Psychologist, 63, 2, 96-110.

[3] Drath, W.H., McCauley, C.D., Palus, C.J., Van Velsor, E., O’Connor, P.M.G., McGuire, J.B. (2008). Direction, alignment, commitment: Toward a more integrative ontology of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 19, 635-653.


Getting Dramatically Better Results from your Leadership Development Programming

Learning Thru Action LLC (LTA) wishes you and your organization a happy New Year, You may have noticed that we haven’t published any blogs since last spring (Best practices for combining Action Learning with leadership development programming. The positive response to that blog combined with changes that we observed in the needs of our clients have resulted in a renewed focus on leadership development programming – what’s working, what isn’t, and what specific actions can be taken to improve the leadership development (LD) process.

The next series of blogs will focus on changes that need to take place in order for organizations to regain confidence in the  LD programs and processes that we offer. Here are some critical issues these blogs will be addressing:

  • Why senior leadership is losing confidence (and patience) in current LD programs
  • Why we don’t have a teachable model of leadership
  • the need for a results-based approach to leadership
  • Leadership strategies – the missing link in LD programs
  • How to include a teachable model of leadership in your LD programming

So, let’s get started…

Part 1 – Why senior leadership is losing confidence (and patience) in current LD programming   Apparently, we’re not doing so well in preparing the next generation of leaders. While spending on LD programming increased by 50% between 1996 and 2012, a poll by Harris indicates that confidence in organizational leadership dropped by 30%.¹ Another survey² indicated that only 18% of HR professionals and 32% of line leaders in organizations considered their leadership bench strength “very strong” or “strong.” Given the drop in confidence in leadership and the thin bench coming up in organizations, it isn’t surprising that organizations are questioning the value of their leadership programs.

The drop in support for LD programming is occurring despite the popularity and maturity of many of the tools typically used in LD programs – 360-degree feedback, executive coaching, mentoring programs, guidance and advice from esteemed leaders, leadership competency training, experiential learning and simulations, and Action Learning. Participants consistently give high ratings to these tools individually. The problem is that emerging leaders have difficulty  translating this learning into demonstrated organizational results. Organizations, after all, are investing in LD programming based on the promise of improved performance, not more sophisticated knowledge and understanding of leadership.

On more than one occasion, I have heard senior leaders mas well as LD programming staff and program participants complain that the leadership theory that is  taught in these programs is too abstract and complex. This makes it difficult for emerging leaders to apply what they learned in class in the fluid, unstructured, and often messy social and technical systems in which they operate. Although participants learn many excellent tools and techniques in simplified contexts, they do not have the necessary roadmaps or problem-solving  rubrics that will work in the real world.

I agree with these complaints. The leadership theories that we are currently using in our LD programming are too abstract, complex and, I would add, too process focused. Furthermore, the complex psychological processes emphasized in our programs are difficult to operationalize and, consequently, to teach.

My next blog  will offer a new approach to leadership that focuses on getting organizational results rather than learning and refining behaviors that we, as professionals, believe are fundamental to leadership. This approach is based upon what I refer to as “A teachable Model of Leadership.”   I hope that you will look forward to my next blog.

¹Kaiser R.B., & Curphy, G. (2013). Leadership development: The failure of an industry and the opportunity for consulting psychologists. Consulting Psychology J., 65, 4, 294-302.
²Boatman, J.,  & Wellis, J.E. (2011). Global leadership forecast. Pittsburgh, PA: Developmental dimensions International.
Skipton Leonard, PhD
Managing Director Learning Thru Action, LLC